Permaculture Guild

November 25, 2013

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A permaculture guild  is a strategic design of organisms benefitting the whole.  Like all the best concepts of permaculture, this mimics the way nature designs.

The photo above shows an abandoned fenceline along Oak Grove Lane.  I started thinking about this fenceline when I noticed the Nannyberry bush, which is in the left of the photo with yellow, red, and green leaves.

It’s a little bit humbling, but I realized if I’m successful with my edible windbreak planting, in fifteen years it will look like this abandoned fenceline. It’s also reassuring to know I’m mimicking nature, which uses space so wisely.

The amount of solar energy turned into food and fodder for everything from microorganisms to birds to humans is amazing.  Just in this photo there is the Nannyberry bush, growing under a Chokecherry tree, which has Wild Grapes hanging from its limbs.  Grasses and forbs cover the ground.  The rest of the life in this area would take a lifetime to catalog.


Nannyberry

November 9, 2013

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2013 is a good year!  I discovered a wild edible growing twenty yards from our mailbox.  Starting in September, every time I picked up the mail, I popped a handful of nannyberries in my mouth and slowly chewed, separating the meaty pulp from the seeds.  This can take a couple of minutes if you have a mouthful, then you spit the seeds out.

Nannyberries are substantial.  Some people compare them to raisins.  The closest food I would compare them to is figs.

The photo below shows the fruit as it grows, in a cluster, with the green being unripe, and the black ripe.  If you wait until the fruit starts to wrinkle, it doesn’t taste as good.

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It probably seems silly, but I experience real joy when I discover a new, wild edible.  It is so difficult to find a new one on your own.  Until you are able to see it, a thing remains invisible.  I think our mind does more of our seeing than our eyes, if that makes any sense to you.

It amazes me that this bush, which is probably at least fifteen years old and been producing fruit for at least ten years has been invisible to me.  Not only did I not know what it was, I didn’t even see the berries and go, “hey, what kind of berries are these?”  I’ve been yards away from this bush thousands of times.  I don’t think its a stretch to say this bush was ‘invisible’ to me.

I started thinking about nannyberries when I heard Sam Thayer say it is his favorite wild edible on public radio.  I reread the chapter on nannyberries a few times in Sam’s first book, The Forager’s Harvest.  My mind was primed.

And then one day as I picked up the mail, I noticed these clusters of berries.  I guess it would be more accurate to say they jumped out at me, as this is a large specimen as you can see in the bottom photo.  My mind was opened so I could see.

I didn’t go pop a handful in my mouth.  I retrieved my book and returned.  The photos are never exactly like the specimen you’re looking at.  What sold me was Sam’s description of the claw-like bud at the top of the clusters of fruit.

When I saw that, I was 99% sure, but I was still cautious.  I picked a wrinkly one and tasted it.  It wasn’t very good, which made me wonder about Sam’s description.  I picked a less-wrinkly one and it tasted better.

I chewed and swallowed, and that was it for the first day.  I wanted to wait and see if I would get sick later.  I’ve never gotten sick from a wild edible, but when I’m discovering a new one, I’m very cautious.

I didn’t get sick, so I ate more the next day.  Like anyone trying a new food, it took me a few tries to really start to desire it.  I also had to figure out which berries were ready to be eaten.

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The scientific name for Nannyberry is Viburnum lentago.  I noticed the genus name, Viburnum, is the same as the Highbush Cranberry, Viburnum trilobumwhich I planted several of this spring in my Permaculture orchard.

When you see a scientific name, the genus comes first and is capitalized, followed by the species which is not capitalized.  If two things share the same genus name, they’re related.  If two things share the same species name it doesn’t mean they’re related taxonomically, but it could mean something else.  For example, Fraxinus americana and Ulmus americana refer to the American ash and American elm tree respectively.  They’re not related, except for the fact that they’re both found in North America.

I was intrigued to find the Nannyberry and Highbush Cranberry are both Viburnums.  I found there are over 150 species within the Viburnum genus.  I can’t wait until my Highbush Cranberry starts to produce fruit and I can enjoy and compare to Nannyberry.


2013 Wild Plum Yield

September 27, 2013

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2013 is the year of the Wild Plum, (Prunus americana)!  Yields were prolific, bending branches with the weight of the juicy orbs.  I ate my fill, yet the pulp of fallen plums squished underfoot.

I wonder why it was such a good year.  I know the weather at flowering in the spring is a large factor.  It must have been perfect this year.  The wild apples were the best ever as well.

What other factors affect yield?  I read that drought reduces yield for plum trees.  Last year we had a severe drought until August.  This year our drought started in July, following over-abundant rains.

My theory is the plum trees suffered early last summer, but were then recharged with the late summer 2012 and early summer 2013 rain, resulting in huge yields.  I’ll have to wait and see if next year’s yield is affected by this year’s drought.

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Election Ink or Berries?

July 21, 2013

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This is my thumb after picking and eating three different berries:  Black raspberry or Rubus occidentalis, Gooseberry or Ribes hirtellum, and Mulberry or Morus (unsure which species).  We managed to get ahead of our mouths enough to bring Mulberries home where they found their way into corn mufffins, pictured below.

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Milkweed, Doe, Fawn

June 13, 2013

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Common Milkweed, Asclepias syriaca.  This is the unidentified plant from my last post.  It looks quite different denuded of its leaves.

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This doe was nursing her fawn close enough to the road that I could snap a distant photo.  The fawn is just ahead of her.  When I stepped out of my truck, the doe ran, but the fawn dropped and froze.  So I walked carefully and took this photo a couple of paces away.  One more step and the fawn knew she was no longer invisible and jumped up and ran like a deer.

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I’m Still Foraging

May 31, 2013

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I’ve known plenty of doctors and lawyers who want to be farmers.  I’m the only farmer I know who wants to be a hunter-gatherer.

I’m still foraging, but haven’t written about it lately because I haven’t added any new plants to my diet.  It’s intimidating and takes time to learn and harvest and try a new plant.  Sam Thayer says learning four of five new ones a year is a manageable goal.

The plants above took only fifteen minutes to harvest and prepare.  The greens on the left will be eaten in a salad.  The stems on the right will be diced and cooked with hamburger.

For the thrill of guessing, no prizes this time, what are the plants pictured above and the main one pictured below?  These wild edibles usually grow so profusely, they make our gardens look like a wasteland.

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Apples in Rented Pasture

August 16, 2012

I was fortunate to rent a pasture this year, close to my farm.  I had a vet preg-check my sixteen fall-calving cows this spring, then vaccinated and fly tagged the twelve which were bred, and put them in the pasture May 1st.

They have done really well, even in the drought, because  I under-stocked the pasture.  I wanted some experience grazing the pasture before I put too many animals in and then had to feed hay or destock.

Now they’re enjoying the wild apples which grow in the woods and in the open.  The cows have a route they walk everyday, checking for down fruit.

The tree above is strange.  Half of it has no apples, the other half is loaded with apples.

I usually eat a few every time I check the cows.  Each tree’s apples taste different, but they’re all good in their own way.


Seeing is a Muscle, Newly Moulted Dragonfly

July 10, 2011

Shepherd and I found this newly moulted Dragonfly while picking BlackCap Raspberries.

It was nearly invisible and we probably wouldn’t have seen it, if it wasn’t sitting on a ripe raspberry.

You never know what you’ll find if you go outside, but if you don’t go, you won’t find it.


Alternate Pollinators

July 5, 2011

Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)  flower.

If you click on the picture above, and blow it up, check out the winged pollinator flying in for a meal in the upper right corner.  The picture below shows a closeup of the flies.

This got me to thinking about alternate pollinators.  I shouldn’t even call them “alternate”, but that shows my thinking before I researched.  There are an estimated 200,000 wild pollinators, mostly insects, not one of them considers itself an alternate.

Everyone gives a lot of credit to honey bees, and the media was in an uproar over “Colony Collapse Disorder,” CCD, but I found out bees are not native to North America.  There are no native plants which require bees for pollination.

Bees are valuable for agriculture.  Some crops are highly dependent upon bees for pollination.  Some beekeepers are paid more to place their hives in Almond orchards than they receive for the honey produced.

A beekeeper friend of mine thought CCD was overblown.  He said, “Get the government to stop allowing the Chinese to import corn syrup mixed with honey, and the price of pure honey will go up, and beekeepers will find a way to combat CCD.  I for one don’t truck my hives all over the country chasing big dollars.  You know the bees mix with other hives and they come back home with every disease known to bees.”

The media turned a human economic problem into an environmental disaster.  The only real problem is to large-scale agriculture.  Plants will be pollinated, fruit will grow, some bees will survive.  To quote Jurassic Park, “Life will find a way.”


Meat and Greens

June 1, 2011

“Smell this and tell me if it’s good,” Citygirlfriend said, holding an old bag of hamburger.

When I met Citygirlfriend, she didn’t really eat or touch meat.  On our first date, I served her a single hamburger, with Goosefoot Greens, (Chenopodium album), on the side.

I guess she figured, ‘When in Rome,’ because she tried to eat it.  She’s been game ever since, and usually cooks meat or eggs for every meal.  I love it.

Melissa is a vegetarian, which is ok.  What I’m really enthused about is how she’s taken to foraging for wild food.  She has developed a recipe with Stinging Nettle leaves and Quinoa.  Quinoa is a member of the Chenopodium genus, and a relative of  Goosefoot Greens.

Hamburger and Chenopodium, who would a thunk it?


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